Reliable access to water is essential to increase crop production and mitigate drought across Africa. This is all the more so as climate change brings greater uncertainty and the demand for food escalates with population growth. This framework for Irrigation Development and Agricultural Water Management in Africa aims to support regional and national strategies and project implementation to achieve continental targets, by promoting country-level initiatives in agricultural water management. Key issues and opportunities are identified in the framework. This provides a basis for ongoing discussion of agricultural water priorities leading to more evidence-based knowledge. The framework is structured around four strategic strategic areas: rain-fed farming; farmer-led irrigation; scheme development and modernization; and unconventional water use for irrigation.